Blood samples are frequently collected in human studies of the immune system but poorly represent tissue-resident immunity. Understanding the immunopathogenesis of tissue-restricted diseases, such as chronic hepatitis B, necessitates direct investigation of local immune responses. We developed a workflow that enables frequent, minimally invasive collection of liver fine-needle aspirates in multi-site international studies and centralized single-cell RNA sequencing data generation using the Seq-Well S3 picowell-based technology. All immunological cell types were captured, including liver macrophages, and showed distinct compartmentalization and transcriptional profiles, providing a systematic assessment of the capabilities and limitations of peripheral blood samples when investigating tissue-restricted diseases. The ability to electively sample the liver of chronic viral hepatitis patients and generate high-resolution data will enable multi-site clinical studies to power fundamental and therapeutic discovery.
Clinical implementation of single-cell RNA sequencing using liver fine needle aspirate tissue sampling and centralized processing captures compartment specific immuno-diversity