Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs predominantly by binding of the viral surface spike protein to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Hypertension and preexisting cardiovascular disease are risk factors for morbidity from COVID-19, and it remains uncertain whether the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers affects infection and disease. This uncertainty has provoked public statements by the American Heart Association, the Heart Failure Society of America, and the American College of Cardiology advising continuation of these agents in the absence of compelling new data.
Myocyte-Specific Upregulation of ACE2 in Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for SARS-CoV-2–Mediated Myocarditis